August 2012 References  Devin J. Starlanyl   for

Bron C, Dommerholt JD. 2012. Etiology of Myofascial Trigger Points. Curr Pain Headache Rep.  [Jul 27 Epub ahead of print]. “Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is described as the sensory, motor, and autonomic symptoms caused by myofascial trigger points (TrPs). Knowing the potential causes of TrPs is important to prevent their development and recurrence, but also to inactivate and eliminate existing TrPs. There is general agreement that muscle overuse or direct trauma to the muscle can lead to the development of TrPs. Muscle overload is hypothesized to be the result of sustained or repetitive low-level muscle contractions, eccentric muscle contractions, and maximal or submaximal concentric muscle contractions. TrPs may develop during occupational, recreational, or sports activities when muscle use exceeds muscle capacity and normal recovery is disturbed.”

Deere KC, Clinch J, Holliday K et al. 2012. Obesity is a risk factor for musculoskeletal pain in adolescents: Findings from a population-based cohort. Pain. [Jul 15 Epub ahead of print]. “Obesity is a risk factor for fibromyalgia in adults, but whether a similar relationship exists in children is uncertain. This study examined whether obesity is associated with reporting of musculoskeletal pain, including chronic regional pain (CRP) and chronic widespread pain (CWP), in adolescents, in a population-based setting....Compared with non obese participants, those with any pain, knee pain, and CRP reported more severe average pain (P<.01). Obese adolescents were more likely to report musculoskeletal pain, including knee pain and CRP. Moreover, obese adolescents with knee pain and CRP had relatively high pain scores, suggesting a more severe phenotype with worse prognosis.”

Ferrari R. 2012. Quantitative assessment of the "inexplicability" of fibromyalgia patients: a pilot study of the fibromyalgia narrative of "medically unexplained" pain. Clin Rheumatol. [Jul 22 Epub ahead of print]. “Compared to other patients with chronic, widespread pain, fibromyalgia patients report a much greater degree of difficulty in understanding the cause of their pain and explaining the cause of their pain to others. This phenomenon may reflect the narrative of ‘inexplicability’ in fibromyalgia patients that distinguishes them from other widespread pain populations.”

Gerwin R. 2012. Botulinum Toxin Treatment of Myofascial Pain: A Critical Review of the Literature. Curr Pain Headache Rep. [Jul 10 Epub ahead of print]. “This is a review of literature relevant to the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome by botulinum injections. The objective is to critically review the studies to see if they are appropriately designed, conducted, and interpreted to provide guidance in the management of myofascial pain. The intent is to better understand the mixed results that these studies have provided. A search was made utilizing PubMed for literature relevant to the use of botulinum toxin in the treatment of myofascial pain. All identifiable series were reviewed, including open label, single-blinded and double-blinded studies, randomized and controlled, or not. In general, small case series of only a few patients were not included unless they made a relevant point and there were no available randomized studies or larger studies.... Problems that were common to the studies were robust placebo responders, incomplete treatment of a regional myofascial pain syndrome, inappropriate or confounding control populations or treatments, and inappropriate time periods for assessment of outcomes, or misinterpretation of the time-frame of action of botulinum toxin. The studies of the effect of botulinum toxin treatment of myofascial trigger points have had mixed results. However, few studies have been designed to avoid many of the pitfalls associated with a trial of botulinum toxin treatment of trigger points. Better-designed studies may give results that can be used to guide practice based on reliable evidence. At the present time, one must conclude that the available evidence is insufficient to guide clinical practice.”

Lin YC, Kuan TS, Hsieh PC et al. 2012. Therapeutic Effects of Lidocaine Patch on Myofascial Pain Syndrome of the Upper Trapezius: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. [Jul 30 Epub ahead of print]. “The 5% lidocaine patch may be helpful for relieving pain and reducing associated neck disability for a period of longer than one wk for treating patients with trigger points in the upper trapezius.”

McMakin CR, Oschman JL. 2012. Visceral and Somatic Disorders: Tissue Softening with Frequency-Specific Microcurrent. J Altern Complement Med. [Jul 9 Epub ahead of print].

“Frequency-specific microcurrent (FSM) is an emerging technique for treating many health conditions. Pairs of frequencies of microampere-level electrical stimulation are applied to particular places on the skin of a patient via combinations of conductive graphite gloves, moistened towels, or gel electrode patches. A consistent finding is a profound and palpable tissue softening and warming within seconds of applying frequencies appropriate for treating particular conditions. Similar phenomena are often observed with successful acupuncture, cranial-sacral, and other energy-based techniques. This article explores possible mechanisms involved in tissue softening.”

Nacir B, Genc H, Duyur Cakit B et al. 2012. Evaluation of Upper Extremity Nerve Conduction Velocities and the Relationship between Fibromyalgia and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. Arch Med Res. [Jul 24 Epub ahead of print]. “We determined an increased rate of CTS (carpal tunnel syndrome) and decreased NCV (nerve conduction velocities) in the upper extremities in patients with FS. We should consider that complaints of paresthesia and pain in hands, increasing especially at night, observed in FS may mask that CTS can be an associated illness.”

Nguyen MH, Kruse A. 2012. A randomized controlled trial of Tai chi for balance, sleep quality and cognitive performance in elderly Vietnamese. Clin Interv Aging. 7:185-90. “Tai chi is beneficial to improve balance, sleep quality, and cognitive performance of the elderly.”

Nijs J, Kosek E, Vanoosterwijck J et al. 2012. Dysfunctional endogenous analgesia during exercise in patients with chronic pain: to exercise or not to exercise? Pain Physician. 15(3 Suppl):ES205-213. “Exercise is an effective treatment for various chronic pain disorders, including fibromyalgia, chronic neck pain, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and chronic low back pain. Although the clinical benefits of exercise therapy in these populations are well established (i.e., evidence based), it is currently unclear whether exercise has positive effects on the processes involved in chronic pain (e.g., central pain modulation). A dysfunctional response of patients with chronic pain and aberrations in central pain modulation to exercise has been shown, indicating that exercise therapy should be individually tailored with emphasis on prevention of symptom flares. The paper discusses the translation of these findings to rehabilitation practice together with future research avenues.”

Pastore EA, Katzman WB. 2012. Recognizing Myofascial Pelvic Pain in the Female Patient with Chronic Pelvic Pain. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2012 Aug 3. [Epub ahead of print]

“Myofascial pelvic pain (MFPP) is a major component of chronic pelvic pain (CPP) and often is not properly identified by health care providers. The hallmark diagnostic indicator of MFPP is myofascial trigger points in the pelvic floor musculature that refer pain to adjacent sites. Effective treatments are available to reduce MFPP, including myofascial trigger point release, biofeedback, and electrical stimulation. An interdisciplinary team is essential for identifying and successfully treating MFPP.”

Paul TM , Hoo JS, Chae J et al. 2012. Central Hypersensitivity in Patients with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. [Jul 9 Epub ahead of print]. “This study provides further evidence that SIS (secondary hyperalgesia) patients have significantly lower PPTs (pain-pressure thresholds) than controls in both local and distal areas from their affected arm consistent with primary and secondary hyperalgesia, respectively. Data suggest the presence of central sensitization among subjects with chronic SIS.”

Rosado-Pérez J, Santiago-Osorio E, Ortiz R et al. 2012.  Tai chi diminishes oxidative stress in Mexican older adults. J Nutr Health Aging. 16(7):642-646.  “...the daily practice of Tai Chi is useful for reducing OxS (oxidative stress) in healthy older adults.”

Smith PF. 2012. Dyscalculia and vestibular function. Med Hypotheses. [Jul 21 Epub ahead of print]. “A few studies in humans suggest that changes in stimulation of the balance organs of the inner ear (the 'vestibular system') can disrupt numerical cognition, resulting in 'dyscalculia', the inability to manipulate numbers. Many studies have also demonstrated that patients with vestibular dysfunction exhibit deficits in spatial memory....It is suggested that there may be a connection between spatial memory deficits resulting from vestibular dysfunction and the occurrence of dyscalculia, given the evidence that numerosity is coupled to the processing of spatial information (e.g., the 'spatial numerical association of response codes ('SNARC') effect').”

Staud R. 2012. Peripheral and Central Mechanisms of Fatigue in Inflammatory and Noninflammatory Rheumatic Diseases. Curr Rheumatol Rep. [Jul 17 Epub ahead of print].

“Whereas many studies have focused on disease activity as a correlate to these patients' fatigue, it has become apparent that other factors, including negative affect and pain, are some of the most powerful predictors for fatigue. Conversely, sleep problems, including insomnia, seem to be less important for fatigue. There are several effective treatment strategies available for fatigued patients with rheumatologic disorders, including pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapies.”